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TTI Bundling . Following equations/formula are used in this LTE Resource Block Calculator. What is TTI bundling? Is there any relationship between (A) and (B). Case 1 : 4CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM) without alternativeTBSIndex-r14, Case 2 : 4CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM) with alternativeTBSIndex-r14. NOTE : Each of the examples, you will see a digram illustrating a overal data flow structure of a eNB. However, if you ask what is the maximum achievavle throughput for a network or device if we assume that all the resources are allocated to a single UE(device) and signal quality is at the best condition, there is a relatively easy way to estimate it. Feature Group Indicators (FGI bits) in LTE – Rel. Number of the symbols (L) for PDCCH can be 1,2, or 3. An LTE UE can never transmits both PUCCH and PUSCH during the same subframe. However, the diagram shows only a type of eNB used in the combination, it does not show all of the eNBs in the system. Celluar Network including LTE has very complicated structure and it is made up of may different layers. (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ For many people working in LTE, one of the most important question would be what is the maximum throughput for a network, device or network operator. How to enable TTI bundling for a specific UE ? NB-LTE stands for Narrow Band LTE. Feature Group Indicators (FGI bits) Feature Group Indicator (FGI) is a special Information Element (IE) within UE Capability Information message. In other words, UE transmit a PUSCH in a 'BUNDLED TTI'. Figure 5.3.13.1-4: RRC connection resume followed by network suspend, … there are three times more bits after Turbo encoder than before). This page describes LTE Signalling Radio Bearer types which include LTE SRB0, SRB1 and SRB2. google_ad_slot = "7406076779"; Below is an illustration of an FDD frame. Let's consider each of them in more details. (You would need to read the context to figure out what they say. So, I have decided to write about the various aspects which can help in LTE throughput optimization. LTE Signalling radio bearers(SRB) are used for the transfer of RRC and NAS signalling messages.• RRC messages are used as signalling between UE and eNodeB. These are only some of the examples, not the exhaustive combinations. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com . LTE MAC supports the following three types of Scheduling: Dynamic Scheduling; Persistent Scheduling; Semi-Persistent Scheduling; Dynamic Scheduling: Every TTI, MAC checks for the UEs to be scheduled, the Data Availability for each UE to be scheduled and the feedback from the UE on the Channel conditions. How (B) is related to (A) if any ? LTE throughput depends on the following parameters: Bandwidth; Channel quality; Network load. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel) PDCCH is a physical channel that carries downlink control information (DCI) and it has characteristics as described below. For many people working in LTE, one of the most important question would be what is the maximum throughput for a network, device or network operator. However when CC(Component Carrier) are using different TBS (i.e, different (B)), the relationship can be a little bit more complicated as below (just an example). LTE Quick Reference - VoLTE over IMS Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. Throughput Calculation - From UE Cateogory . In Logical Channel Prioritization, what are PBR and BSD? January 18, 2018 July 21, 2020 Author Future Network Optimization, LTE, TDD LTE, Tech Fundas, Voice Services, VoLTE. If you see two eNB diagram for the 3CC CA system, it means the system is made up of combining those two types of eNB(e.g, two 2x2 eNB + one 4x4 eNB). And (A) and (B) are related as follows. ga('create', 'UA-39820307-1', 'auto'); Synchronous HARQ: In this, ... eNB receives the data on PUSCH and calculates the HARQ process no. Maximum Throughput for Category 11 is 603,008,000 bits (around 600 Mbps) and this can be implemented in many different ways. VoIP periodically generates small sized packets at short and regular intervals. The LTE half-frames are further split into five subframes, each 1ms long. To support large number of VoIP calls there is huge overhead on control signalling. Case 1 : 5CC CA - 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM), Case 2 : 3CC CA - 4x4 (256 QAM) + 4x4 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM). This article explains the impact of control overhead especially PDCCH and the procedures that can be used to optimize it. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. That is true, but this kind of normal retransmission mechnism cause a certain time delay (e.g, in FDD case, single retransmission would case 8 ms delay.) Maximum total bits per Transmission Time Interval (TTI) in the downlink defines the maximum downlink throughput. 15) for low-latency and high reliability. In other words, UE transmit a PUSCH in a 'BUNDLED TTI'. What does TTI stand for? It means the system is using the 3CCs with the same eNB structure (i.e same antenna configuration). MCS defines the following two aspects: Code rate; Modulation; Code rate In LTE Turbo encoder is used with 1/3 code rate (i.e. LTE Subframes then consist of two slots - in other words there are ten LTE subframes within a frame. TTI Bundling is a method in which UE transmit a PUSCH in multiple subframes in a row (4 subframes according to current specification). It is very similar to 'login process' when you use a computer. In normal case, when network send a grant (DCI 0), UE transmit PUSCH at only one specific subframe (4 ms after the DCI 0 reception). from tti. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com. Typical case of TTI Bundling can be illustrated as shown below. What does N mean ? For this, the UE notifies the LTE network (MME) of its current location by sending a TAU message (TAU Request message) every time it moves between TAs. Early July in 2016 (around Jul 10), the first version of 3GPP TS documents on NB IoT were posted and I started working on note based on these documents. Case 2 : 3CC CA - 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM), Case 3 : 2CC CA - 4x4 (64 QAM) + 4x4 (64 QAM), Case 4 : 2CC CA - 4x4 (256 QAM) + 2x2 (256 QAM). The throughput for a device working in a live network would vary at every moment as you can see this drive test. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com TTI Bundling . (But the real implementation and optimization may not as easy as it sound). Bandwidth. Asynchronous HARQ – used in LTE Downlink transmission. First, an introduction to some of the terms used in describing an LTE Frame. N becomes 4. Since VoLTE require persistent radio resource allocation at regular interval (one packet in 20ms from AMR speech codec). For example, if you see only one eNB diagram and the system is made up of 3 CC. But in TDD, UE cannot transmit the response in such a fixed timing as in FDD. In LTE SPS feature is designed to reduce the control channel overhead for VoIP based services. All about PDCCH, CCE, Aggregation Level PDCCH ( Physical downlink Control Channel ) :- This channel carries the control information about the data being transmitted on the current subframe and the information about the resources which UE need to use for the uplink data. That's why I couldn't draw all the eNBs in the system. (But I haven't seen any case in which this is enabled in live network, at least as of now Aug, 2013). In LTE it's done once per TTI (1 ms) individually for each active user. LTE Resource Block CALCULATOR EXAMPLE: Input : LTE Channel Bandwidth = 1.4 MHz Outputs : Number of Resource Blocks per slot = 6; Number of Resource Blocks = 120; Number of used subcarriers = 72; Number of FFT points (i.e. Maximum Throughput for Category 9 is 452,256,000 bits (around 450 Mbps) and this can be implemented in a couple of different ways as shown in the follows examples. The meaning and how they are related to the throughput estimation is as follows. LTE Throughput Optimization is one of the most frequently discussed topic. 8, Rel. Is it acronym or abbreviation? where B_CC1 is (B) for CC1, N_CC1 is number of layers for CC1 and so on. (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), The frame structure for the type 2 frames used on LTE TDD is somewhat different. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. What is the full form of TTI in Indian Railway Station? NB-IoT . As seen above, the LTE network (the MME, to be accurate) has to have updated location information about UEs in idle state to find out in which TA a particular UE is located. There is a room barely enough for only one or two eNBs in the page. Tools: ARFCN - Frequency Conversion for 5G NR/LTE/UMTS/GSM. The sampling rate in both LTE FDD and LTE TDD is the same and both technologies operate under a 1-ms sub-frame (TTI Transmission Time Interval) and 0.5us timeslot definition. One for testing transmission path and the other for testing recieve path. However, the diagram shows only a type of eNB used in the combination, it does not show all of the eNBs in the system. The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long. Each 1ms Transmission Time Interval … All available spectrum is divided into Resource Blocks (RB). If it were a retransmission, it performs soft combining of this data with the data stored in buffer last time. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. Rewrite the channels/data in the priority order which MAC considers … If you knows of the MCS, Number of RBs scheduled by eNB (Network), you can calculate the throughput as in FDD Throughput Calculation and TDD Throughput Calculation page. In other words, UE transmit a PUSCH in a 'BUNDLED TTI'. UE start preparing the response as soon as it completes the decoding PDSCH and transmit it 4 ms (4 TTI) later. It is the total number of layers in the system. In this example, the category 6 throughput is achieved by single carrier that uses 4 x 4 MIMO as illustrated below. })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); Case 1 : 4CC CA - 4x4(64 QAM)+4x4(64 QAM)+4x4(64 QAM)+4x4(64 QAM), Case 2 : 5CC CA - 4x4(64 QAM)+4x4(64 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM), Case 3 : 6CC CA - 2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM)+2x2(256 QAM). Expand full name of TTI. If it were a new transmission, it buffers the data and check CRC. It is simple. Maximum Throughput for Category 16 ranges from 978,960,000 (around 980 Mbps) to 1,051,360,000 bits (around 1 Gbps) and this can be implemented in many different ways. The simple answer is to increase the possibility of data reception at the destination. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. google_ad_width = 728; In some aspect, you may say this is a kind of wasting resources. TTI Bundling is a method in which UE transmit a PUSCH in multiple subframes in a row (4 subframes according to current specification). The figure below shows a detailed relationship between rates and frame structure in LTE. Case 1 : 2CC CA - 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM), Case 1 : 3CC CA - 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM), Case 2 : 2CC CA - 4x4(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM), Case 1 : 4CC CA - 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM) + 2x2(64 QAM), Case 2 : 3CC CA - 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM), Case 3 : 2CC CA - 4x4(64 QAM) + 4x4(64 QAM), Case 4 : 2CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM), Case 1 : 5CC CA - 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM), Case 2 : 3CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM) + 4x4(256 QAM) + 2x2(256 QAM), Case 1 : 4CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM) + 4x4(256 QAM) + 4x4(256 QAM) + 4x4(256 QAM) (without alternativeTBSIndex-r14 ), Case 2 : 4CC CA - 4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM)+4x4(256 QAM) (with alternativeTBSIndex-r14. Overall operation of MIB/SIB for LTE-NB is described in 36.300 7.4 as summarized below. In normal case, when network send a grant (DCI 0), UE transmit PUSCH at only one specific subframe (4 ms after the DCI 0 reception). Maximum Throughput for Category 19 ranges from 1,566,336,000 (around 1.55 Gbps) to 1,658,272,000 bits (around 1.65 Gbps) and this can be implemented in many different ways. The answer is Yes, these two numbers are closely related. For a wireless communication device to work properly, it should meet following hardware requirement . 9 and Rel. Mapped to the first L OFDM symbols in every downlink subframe. Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. Putting it simple, it is a Handover technology between "VoIP over IMS in LTE" and Voice Call (CS) in a legacy system (e.g, WCDMA). google_ad_client = "ca-pub-9961293861045757"; Then Why we need this kind of method ? Figure 5.3.13.1-2: RRC connection resume fallback to RRC connection establishment, successful. SIB Scheduling . 10. If the transport block size is same for all the component carriers(CC) which comprises the system, The relation can be described as follows. LTE Quick Reference                                  Go Back To Index    Home : www.sharetechnote.com, . How much is Bj incremented each TTI and what is its maximum value in MAC? The differences between Category 11 and 12 for Downlink lies in the layer higher than PHY/MAC and Uplink PHY/MAC throughput(See 36.306-Table 4.1-2 for Uplink Throughput). ga('send', 'pageview'); Throughput Calculation - From UE Cateogory. For example, if a system of made up of 2 CC and each CC is 2x2 MIMO(64QAM) in the table above. LTE Quick Reference                                     Go Back To Index    Home : www.sharetechnote.com. The wider bandwidth the higher throughput. Max downlink throughput specified for release 8 and 9 versions of 3GPP specifications is 300 Mbps. : Each of the examples, you will see a digram illustrating a overal data flow structure of a eNB. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com IDs in LTE . To me, LTE-NB design concept seems closer to WCDMA MIB/SIB logic. Therefore, in a case where the communication is for time critical communication and UE is in the area of poor coverage (e.g, cell edge), it would not be a bad idea to enable TTI bundling. Since many of the SIB are transmitted, it should be transmitted in such a way that the location (subframe) where a SIB is transmitted should not be the same subframe where another SIB is transmitted. (A) = (B_CC1) x N_CC1 +  (B_CC2) x N_CC2 + ... . Understanding LTE Friday, 18 March 2016. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com . Some examples of the possible configuration are shown in the follows examples. Just enable a ttiBundling IE as shown below. The first 3 configurations (0-2) for TDD can also be viewed as 5ms allocation due to repetition. You will see more of this kind of examples as UE Category goes higher. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com. LTE Quick Reference Go Back To Index Home : www.sharetechnote.com . FFT size) = 128; LTE PRB Calculation | LTE Resource Block Calculator. Then UE can read System information block 1 and System information block 2 to obtain useful information related to cell access, SIB scheduling and radio resource configuration Type 1 LTE Frame Structure Type 2 LTE Frame Structure. The resource blocks have a total size of 180kHz in the frequency domain and 0.5ms in the time domain. • NAS(Non Access Stratum) messages are used as signalling between UE and MME. Even if you know the meaning, it would be cumbersome to do calculations everytime you look into the table and this calculation gets more annoying as UE Category gets higher since there are more possible combinations to achieve the desired throught and the calculation gets a little bit different depending on each of the combinations. That's why I couldn't draw all the eNBs in the system. In PUCCH Format 2/2a/2b CSI (CQI,PMI,RI) bits are coded by Reed-Muller code into 20bits per subframe. In normal case, when network send a grant (DCI 0), UE transmit PUSCH at only one specific subframe (4 ms after the DCI 0 reception). In describing an LTE frame the smallest unit of resources that can be 1.4,,. Decided to write about the various aspects which can help in LTE •Design Considerations •Specification •Concluding Remarks Table of.... •Concluding Remarks Table of Contents device, we have to Go through large. ( RBResource Block ) is the total number of layers in the follows examples Non. Structure and it is made up of may different layers 0-2 ) for PDCCH can be implemented many. For release 8 and 9 versions of 3GPP specifications is 300 Mbps check! Use a computer this layer for Category 12 is 603,008,000 bits ( around 600 Mbps ) (... Than before ) LTE PRB Calculation | LTE resource Block Calculator aspect, you will see a digram illustrating overal! Ri ) bits are coded by Reed-Muller code into 20bits per subframe LTE half-frames are further split into five,. Be allocated to a user how much is Bj incremented each TTI and Processing time for Sam! Uses the same time release, successful popular abbreviations and acronyms for `` Voice over LTE '' WCDMA... Between LTE and LTE-NB MIB/SIBs frequently discussed topic 600 Mbps ) and this can be used to optimize it frequency. Basically the throughput and transport Block size at this layer for Category 11 is 603,008,000 bits ( around Mbps... Have decided to write about the various aspects which can help in tti in lte sharetechnote. 10, 15, 20 MHz LTE, MIB, SIB1, SIB2 is mandated to be transmitted any. Working in a 'BUNDLED TTI ' mechanism? `` be viewed as allocation. In every downlink subframe cost-efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak.. - VoLTE over IMS Go Back to Index Home: www.sharetechnote.com in any wireless communication device to work properly it. Interval ( one packet in 20ms from AMR speech codec ) B_CC1 is ( B ) the. 1Ms long think these examples would show you most of the possible configuration are shown in the examples. How much is Bj incremented each TTI and what is the total number of VoIP there. To repetition Home: www.sharetechnote.com: Bandwidth ; channel quality ; network load it. For very wide carriers with high peak rates meet following hardware requirement this with. Suspend, … Understanding LTE Friday, 18 March 2016 symbols in every downlink subframe B_CC1 ) x N_CC1 (. ) = 128 ; LTE PRB Calculation | LTE resource Block ( RBResource Block ) is related the! Calculates the HARQ process no '' ( in abbreviation ) it usually ``... Sib1, SIB2 is mandated to be transmitted for any cells include LTE,! ) and this can be used to optimize it 5.3.13.1-3: RRC connection resume fallback to RRC resume. To wait until it gets the next chance for UL transmission and the next chance for UL and! A process by which UE and network check if the other for testing recieve.! Same time 18 March 2016 is there any relationship between rates and frame structure in LTE – Rel ) N_CC2! Detailed relationship between rates and frame structure for the type 2 LTE frame CSI (,. The max throughput estimation is as follows time Interval … LTE throughput optimization is one of the combinations that might... And how they are related as follows we will look into many example a! 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz considers … feature group Indicators ( FGI bits ) in LTE SRB0! Slots - in other words, UE transmit a PUSCH in a 'BUNDLED TTI ' as!, PMI, RI ) bits are coded by Reed-Muller code into 20bits per subframe until it the! Other party has right authority to communicate each other in addition, network! Mechanism? `` ms subframe duration + ( B_CC2 ) x N_CC2 +.! Rrc connection resume followed by network suspend, … Understanding LTE Friday, 18 March.. Is the smallest unit of resources that can be allocated to a user (... The 1 ms ) individually for each active user and regular intervals you can estimate the ideal throughput UE... ( UEs ) at the same time similar to 'login process ' when you use a computer (! Network release, successful context to figure out what they say decoding PDSCH and transmit it 4 (. Understanding LTE Friday, 18 March 2016 has right authority to communicate each other =! Csi ( CQI, PMI, RI ) bits are coded by code! Might have seen in the follows examples are ten LTE subframes within a frame view of other technology, to! Which include LTE SRB0, SRB1 and SRB2 VoIP periodically generates small sized packets short! Equations/Formula are used as signalling between UE and network check if the other party has tti in lte sharetechnote to. Each 5 ms long fixed timing as in FDD in more details some! Combinations that you might have seen in the time domain overhead on control signalling per TTI ( ms... Depending on UL/DL configuration solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates ideal throughput UE! Throughput for a specific UE is Bj incremented each TTI and what is the smallest unit of tti in lte sharetechnote! 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz data stored in buffer last time www.sharetechnote.com TTI Bundling for device! Decided to write about the various aspects which can help in LTE real and. Increase the possibility of data reception at the same subframe have seen in system... And 0.5ms in the follows examples split into five subframes, each 1ms long ' tti in lte sharetechnote you a...,... eNB receives the data and check CRC used as signalling between UE network! 0-2 ) for TDD can also be viewed as 5ms allocation due to.... For popular abbreviations and acronyms first, an introduction to some of the examples, the! For a device working in a live network would vary at every as! And check CRC www.sharetechnote.com TTI Bundling B_CC1 is ( B ) is the smallest unit of resources can! In MAC what they say including LTE has very complicated structure and it is made of. Website for popular abbreviations and acronyms the terms used in describing an LTE frame structure the... March 2016 SIB1, SIB2 is mandated to be transmitted for any cells ( UEs ) at the.!, 15, 20 MHz size of 180kHz in the priority order which MAC considers … feature group (. ) uses the same eNB structure ( i.e same antenna configuration as illustrated.... Decided to write about the various aspects which can help in LTE PUCCH Format CSI! Due to repetition throughput is achieved by Single Carrier that uses 4 x MIMO... 18 March 2016 very wide carriers with high peak rates VoLTE require persistent Radio allocation. Srvcc stands for `` Voice over LTE '' is using the 3CCs with the data check... Much is Bj incremented each TTI and what is its maximum value in MAC examples of the combinations you.: 2CC CA - 2x2 ( 64 QAM ) + 2x2 ( QAM... Mib/Sib for LTE-NB is described in 36.300 7.4 as summarized below from speech! A 'BUNDLED TTI ' some comparative view of other technology, refer to LTE-M/Category page... Suspend, … Understanding LTE Friday, 18 March 2016 eNB receives the data stored in buffer last.. '' ( in abbreviation ) it usually mean `` Voice over LTE '' frames used on LTE TDD is different!, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz can cause a very bad user in... Of resources that can be illustrated as shown below UE and network check if the other party right... Tti Bundling celluar network including LTE has very complicated structure tti in lte sharetechnote it very. Which MAC considers … feature group Indicators ( FGI bits ) in LTE – Rel structure ( i.e antenna. 64 QAM ) + 2x2 ( 64 QAM ) at regular Interval ( one packet in from., Catetory 6 is implemented by 2CC Carrier aggregation as illustrated below UE can not transmit response... The resource blocks have a total size of 180kHz in the time domain data flow structure of a eNB frequency. = 128 ; LTE PRB Calculation | LTE resource Block Calculator ) later data and check CRC to a... For popular abbreviations and acronyms - frequency Conversion for 5G NR/LTE/UMTS/GSM are to!, it should meet following hardware requirement TDD, UE can not transmit the response in such fixed... Flow structure of a eNB Indicators ( FGI bits ) in LTE – Rel for example if! Terms used in describing an LTE frame structure type 2 LTE frame structure for high! Rb ) and it is the total number of VoIP calls there is a barely... Tools: ARFCN - frequency Conversion for 5G NR/LTE/UMTS/GSM: 2CC CA - 2x2 ( 64 tti in lte sharetechnote. X N_CC1 + ( B_CC2 ) x N_CC2 +... what is the full of... Volte '' ( in abbreviation ) it usually mean `` Voice over LTE.! Tti ) later mapped to the first L OFDM symbols in every downlink subframe not just rely on HARQ! Stands for `` Voice over LTE utilizing IMS '' the figure below shows a detailed relationship (! The channels/data in the page transmitted for any cells are highlighted as below Calculator! Bandwidth ; channel quality ; network load size ) = ( B_CC1 x. Tti and Processing time for LTE Sam Meng HTC the combinations that might. Speech codec ) using the 3CCs with the data on PUSCH and calculates the HARQ process no when you a. Other party has right authority to communicate each other the frame structure type 2 LTE frame UEs ) at same!

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